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torsdag 19 oktober 2017

Gliadiinipeptidit aiheuttavat neutrofiilien migroitumista 2 tunnin kuluttua altistuksesta

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Karin++Lammers+%2C+FPR-receptor%2C+gliadin
PLoS One. 2015 Sep 17;10(9):e0138338. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138338. eCollection 2015.

Gliadin Induces Neutrophil Migration via Engagement of the Formyl Peptide Receptor, FPR1.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Gliadin, the immunogenic component within gluten and trigger of celiac disease, is known to induce the production of Interleukin-8, a potent neutrophil-activating and chemoattractant chemokine. We sought to study the involvement of neutrophils in the early immunological changes following gliadin exposure.

METHODS:

Utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, the redistribution of major tight junction protein, Zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and neutrophil recruitment were assessed in duodenal tissues of gliadin-gavaged C57BL/6 wild-type and Lys-GFP reporter mice, respectively. Intravital microscopy with Lys-GFP mice allowed monitoring of neutrophil recruitment in response to luminal gliadin exposure in real time. In vitro chemotaxis assays were used to study murine and human neutrophil chemotaxis to gliadin, synthetic alpha-gliadin peptides and the neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, in the presence or absence of a specific inhibitor of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor-1 (FPR1), cyclosporine H. An irrelevant protein, zein, served as a control.

RESULTS:

Redistribution of ZO-1 and an influx of CD11b+Lys6G+ cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine were observed upon oral gavage of gliadin. In vivo intravital microscopy revealed a slowing down of GFP+ cells within the vessels and influx in the mucosal tissue within 2 hours after challenge. In vitro chemotaxis assays showed that gliadin strongly induced neutrophil migration, similar to fMet-Leu-Phe. We identified thirteen synthetic gliadin peptide motifs that induced cell migration. Blocking of FPR1 completely abrogated the fMet-Leu-Phe-, gliadin- and synthetic peptide-induced migration.

CONCLUSIONS:

Gliadin possesses neutrophil chemoattractant properties similar to the classical neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, and likewise uses FPR1 in the process.
PMID:
26378785
PMCID:
PMC4574934
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0138338
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

onsdag 18 oktober 2017

Taatelin ravintotekijät Hyvä energia- ja mineraaliravinto!

https://fineli.fi/fineli/fi/elintarvikkeet/28937?q=taateli&foodType=ANY&portionUnit=G&portionSize=100&sortByColumn=name&sortOrder=asc&component=2331&

Ravintotekijät taatelissa (100g)

Ravintotekijä Määrä Menetelmä Tietolähde Julkaisu
energia, laskennallinen 811 kJ (194 kcal) summattu osatekijöistä THL:n tuottama
hiilihydraatti imeytyvä 38.2 g laskettu reseptistä THL:n tuottama
rasva 0.7 g laskettu reseptistä THL:n tuottama
proteiini 3.0 g laskettu reseptistä THL:n tuottama
alkoholi 0 g laskettu reseptistä THL:n tuottama

Taatelin antia kutsutaan Raamatussa mesi- nimellä (meged) . Mitä on taatelisokeri?

Olen oppinut pitämään  taateleista, sillä ne ovat virkistäviä hedelmiä varinkin kuumassa ilmassa, utta kautat vuoden antavat voimia. Mikä on taatelin salaisuus? Löysin hyvän artikkelin ja käännän siitä jonkin asian.  Raamatun mesi (meged) on joskus käännetty suomeksi sanalla hunaja, mutta tarkoitetaan kuitenkin tätä taatelimettä., joka on suomalaiseklle  vaikeampi käsite ennenkuin sitä on maistanut.

http://www.thekitchn.com/whats-date-sugar-and-how-do-you-use-it-243959
Taatelissa on  kaliumia, rautaa, B-vitamiineja ja kuitua, siitä tehdään  pastaa ja siirappia, sitä kuivataan ja siitä voidaan tehdä myös sokeria.   Pystyykö taatelisokeri kilpailemaan kidesokerin kanssa leivonnaisissa ja onko sillä samaa ravintoarvoa kuin kokonaisilla taateleilla ?
Kirjoittajien ryhmä tutki asiaa, miten taatelisokeri tehdään ja millaista käyttöä sillä olisi  ruoanlaitossa.
  • Dates seem to be having their time in the superfood spotlight. Full of potassium, iron, B vitamins, and fiber, this sweet fruit is being churned into paste and syrup, and even being dried and turned into sugar. Does date sugar rival its granulated counterparts when it comes to baked goods, and does it hold the same nutritional power as whole dates? We did some digging to learn all about how date sugar is made and how we can (and cannot) use date sugar in the kitchen. 

Mitä taatelisokeri on?  

Taatelisokeria tehdään kuivatuista taateleista, joita jauhetaan hienon sokerin kaltaiseksi   Koska  sokerintekoon käytetään kokonaisia taateleita, joista on kivi poistettu, kuitu jättää sokeriin pieniä murusia, jotka eivät liukene kuumaan nesteeseen tai paistettaessa   leivonnaista.  Sillä on makea, erityinen voin kanssa kombinoidun aineen  aromi, joka on paljon vivahteikkaampi kuin rukean sokerin aromi, vaikka se  näyttää silmälle samanlaiselta.  (Kommentti:  Erittäin  hyvää! Vaikea edes verrata mihinkään.. Olen tehnyt tällaista voin kanssa).

  • What Is Date Sugar? Date sugar is made with dehydrated dates that are ground to resemble granulated sugar. Because whole, pitted dates are used to make the sugar, the presence of fiber leaves a tiny grit to the sugar that won't dissolve in hot liquids or baked goods. It has a sweet, butterscotch-like flavor that's much more nuanced than brown sugar, although it shares a similar appearance.

 Taatelipalmusokerista.

Tätä termiä  ei pidä sekoittaa  taatelisokeriin, sillä " date palm sugar", "palmsugar"  palmusokeri on tehty sokeripalmupuun mahlasta. Kuten valmistettaessa sokeria  sokeriruovosta  palmusokerimahla keitetään kunnes mahla kuivuu ja kiteytyy. Sillä ei ole samaa ravitsemuksellista kirjoa kuin taatelisokerilla.  Sitä on sekä  jalostettuna että  jalostamattomana hienosokerilaatuna  ja sitä voi käyttää leipomisessa 1:1. Joskus sitä myydän  tiiviinä  sokeritoppana.

  • What about date palm sugar? Not to be confused with date sugar, date palm sugar, or just palm sugar, is made from the sap of the sugar palm tree. Just like cane sugar, the sugar palm sap is boiled down until the sap is dry and crystalized. It does not have the same nutritional profile as date sugar. It comes in both refined and unrefined granulated varieties, which can be used 1:1 in baking recipes. It is sometimes sold in cones similar to piloncillo sugar.



Hyvia gluteenittomia elintarvikkeita: Taateli , Phoenix dactylifera , Arecaceae

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23917264
Nat Commun. 2013;4:2274. doi: 10.1038/ncomms3274.

Genome sequence of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L.

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. Here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (Khalas), which is 605.4 Mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671 Mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that P. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. Genetic diversity analysis indicates that its stress resistance and sugar metabolism-related genes tend to be enriched in the chromosomal regions where the density of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is relatively low. Using transcriptomic data, we also illustrate the date palm's unique sugar metabolism that underlies fruit development and ripening. Our large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data pave the way for further genomic studies not only on P. dactylifera but also other Arecaceae plants.

Katson taatelista  hieman jonkin proteiinin rakennetta. Tässä on sen  xylanaasin rakenne ja siinä mahdollisesti olevia proliineja ja glutamiineja. havaitsen muutamia glutamiinidipeptidijaksoja QQ ja sitten on vain yksittäisiä proliineja tai glutamiineja muutamia siellä täällä.

ORIGIN      
        1 mrallmllsw vflqwqlafg asydgprydy yastecktyp eaplydggil adrtgkipmt
       61 yykmetgvys pafvlynltg ttrytfscwv kikgtvstll karlstetst skcvgtasak
      121 sscwsflkgg fvldspsqts ilyfqdvean naieisvtsp slqpfsveqw ktqqeenirt
      181 krkrvatvhv sdsqgnhitg asvtaqqlsk dfpfgsaiak tilgntayqa wfakrfnaav
      241 fenelkwytt epepgklnyt ladellefvr anqivarghn ifwedpkytp swvqnltgde
      301 lraavksrid slltrykgef vhwdvsneml hfdfyeqrlg ynatfdffat aqqsdpyatl
      361 fmndfnviet cddvnstvds yasrlkeike gggvlegigl eghfskpnfp lmravldkla
      421 tlklpiwlte idisnsfdqq tqwnwkeidt tcrivanyyt

måndag 16 oktober 2017

Chia siementen prolamiineista ja gluteliineista .Yhden proteiinin sekvenssi.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23240604

J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Jan 9;61(1):193-201. doi: 10.1021/jf3034978. Epub 2012 Dec 28.

Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

Abstract

Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant that produces seeds rich in some nutraceutical compounds with high protein content, but little is known about them; for this reason the aim of this study was to characterize the seed storage proteins.
 Protein fractions were extracted from chia seed flour. The main protein fraction corresponded to globulins (52%).
 Sedimentation coefficient studies showed that the globulin fraction contains mostly 11S and 7S proteins. The molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15-50 kDa. Electrophoretic experiments under native conditions exhibited four bands of globulins in the range of 104-628 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of crude albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and 91 °C, respectively; albumins and globulins had relatively good thermal stability. Selected globulin peptides by mass spectrometry showed homology to sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino acids was found in the seed flour and globulins, especially of methionine+cysteine.
PMID:
23240604
DOI:
10.1021/jf3034978

Paljon tarinaa, hyvää mainintaa, mutta  ei struktuuria prolamiinista tai gluteliinista. .
http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/salvia

D. Orona-Tamayo1, ... O. Paredes-López12, in Sustainable Protein Sources, 2017

Abstract

Salvia hispanica L., commonly known as chia, is an ancient food that provides a balanced amount of nutrients composed of insoluble fiber, high ω-3/-6 fatty acids, proteins with an excellent quality of amino acids, high content of antioxidants, and minerals. In the first instance, chia seed coat contains mucilage that protects all seed nutrients and is involved in water retention in foods. The seed is a valuable source of one of the most important ω-3 fatty acids, α-linoleic. Chia seed storage proteins are composed mainly of globulin, followed by albumin, prolamin, and glutelin fractions containing essential amino acids encrypted in their primary sequences. Rosmarinic, caffeic, and gallic acids are the main phenolic compounds. Nutritionists, researchers, and industry have paid attention to chia for its outstanding benefits. Chia is now recognized as a “seed for the first 21st century” that confers invaluable nutraceutical benefits such as antihypertensive and antioxidant functions. The seed compounds may be improved and modified by genome edition technologies to obtain better nutraceutical attributes for health and food industry. Chia can be crowned as the new golden and super seed with excellent benefits for human health.

  • LÖYYY ENTSYYMIRAKENTEITA:
Fatty acid desaturase Salvia hispanica: Hyvää ainesta!  Chia mainiostetaan   gluteenittomaksi. Ilahduttavasti  histidiinejä ja lysiinejä.Ainakaan tästä entsyymirakenteesta ei ole liimaisen gluteenin muodostukseen.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/ARE67908.1

ORIGIN      
        1 masfvisgcg lkplpriypk prsvqnsfst snlrisrpnq fssssiginq krnwglgvsa
       61 plriqpleee neefdpaapp pfklsdikaa ipkhcwvkdp wrsvgyvvrd vvavlgmaaa
      121 aayfnswivw plywfaqstm fwalfvlghd cghgsfsnnp klnsvfghfl hssilvpyhg
      181 wrishrthhq nhghvendes whpmpekiyn sldsmakklr ftlpfpmlay piylwtrspg
      241 kkgshyhpds dlfvpaerkd vitstvcwta maallvglsf vmgpiqllkl ygipylgfva
      301 wldtvtylhh hghedklpwy rgkewsylrg glttldrdyg linnihhdig thvihhlfpq
      361 iphynlieat eaakgvlgky yrepkksgpl plhllgdlvr slkkdhyvsd tgdvvyyqtd
      421 pqlnggqks
//